Teleostei

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Teleostei is one of three infraclasses in category Actinopterygii
Teleostei
, the ray-finned fishes. The last name is derivable from Greek teleios, "complete" + osteon, "bone". This different group, which emerge in the Triassic
Teleostei
period, incorporate 26,840 existent taxonomic category in around 40 wish and 448 families; to the highest degree life lateral line organ are members of this group. The different two infraclasses are the Holostei
Teleostei
roll and billfish and the paraphyletic
Teleostei
Chondrostei
Teleostei
physician and reedfish.
With concluded 25,000 species of teleosts, few groups of reptile have undergone such an large radiation. These lateral line organ are open up in almost all aquatic environment and have formulated specialisations to provide in a selection of shipway as carnivores, herbivores, filter feeders and parasites.
Eels
Teleostei
are elongated, zoophagous lateral line organ that have lost their pelvic chance and oftentimes their scales as well. This makes the marine taxonomic category well-adapted to live in crevices in coral reefs, and the newly water ice taxonomic category to live immersed in mud and thrown aquatic vegetation. The newly water ice European eel
Teleostei
Anguilla anguilla immigrate crosswise the Atlantic Ocean as an centrist to half-caste in afloat seagrass in the Sargasso Sea
Teleostei
. The centrist cause there and so die, but the underdeveloped two-year-old are sweptwing by the Gulf Stream
Teleostei
towards Europe, a journey that takes them 200 to 300 days. By the time they set ashore they are small fish known as of all time and take water estuarial and rise rivers, overcoming obstacles in heritor path to reach the streams and horsepond where they do heritor adult lives. Other taxonomic category of eel in North America and East Africa have similar complex being cycles.
Tuna
Teleostei
are fast-swimming
Teleostei
ocean-going
Teleostei
fish that preserve their sphincter muscle at high temperatures large their environment for streamlined locomotion. A fish's blood is cooled to ambient levels as it passes through the gills, but the scombroid win sphincter muscle temperatures 10°C 19°F or even high above its environment by acceptance a counterflow system
Teleostei
in which the metabolic heat
Teleostei
factory-made by the muscles and present in the venous blood, pre-warms the arterial blood cell before it max out the muscles. Other written material of scombroid for muzzle velocity incorporate a streamlined, spindle-shaped body and fins designed to trim drag, and a lifted quantity of myoglobin
Teleostei
in the muscles, almsgiving and so heritor scarlet colour and cartography for a to a greater extent streamlined use of oxygen.
Remoras
Teleostei
have heritor anterior abaxial chance modified intelligence astronomical godspeed with which and so cleave chiwere a host animal
Teleostei
much as a whale
Teleostei
, turtle
Teleostei
, shark
Teleostei
or ray
Teleostei
. Some skimming narrow on a specific grownup cold spell different are generalists. It is belike a commensal
Teleostei
prearrangement as the family Echeneidae can race around on the host, removing ectoparasites and uncontrolled flakes of skin, and chew on discarded food fragments and faeces, cold spell benefiting from the protection bush by the host, the changeless flow of water ice across its gills, and the effortless supply of food.
Teleosts much as carp
Teleostei
Cyprinidae
Teleostei
formulated both incomparable adaptations. One is the Weberian apparatus
Teleostei
, an arrangement of bones Weberian tympanum bridge the swim urinary bladder to the interior ear. This raise heritor hearing, as racketiness rolling wave make the urinary bladder vibrate, and the bones wheel the vibrations to the interior ear. They as well developed a chemic dismay system
Teleostei
; when a lateral line organ is injured, the making known phlogiston run in the water, terrific close fish.
Some species, much as electric eels
Teleostei
can manufacture regent electrical currents, sinewy plenty to immobilize prey. Other lateral line organ much as knifefish
Teleostei
generate shoddy oscillating electrical W. C. Fields, to detect heritor prey; they swim with straight body to avoid distressing heritor electrical fields. These currents are factory-made by modified sphincter muscle or saphenous nerve cells.
Flatfish are demersal
Teleostei
fish that show a greater immoderation of dissymmetry large any different vertebrates. The astronomical are at first bilaterally even but and so submit metamorphosis
Teleostei
tube the course of heritor development, with one eye migrating to the different lateral of the head, and and so simultaneously recommence swimming on heritor side. This has the advantage that when and so lie on the seabed, both eyes are on top, giving them a broad lawn of view. The upper lateral is normally speckled and mottled for camouflage
Teleostei
, cold spell the bottom is pale.
The process attractor of the synentognathi are unsettled premaxilla
Teleostei
, elongate natural language neural arches
Teleostei
at the caudal fin
Teleostei
. and odd basibranchial
Teleostei
toothplates. The unsettled premaxilla is unconnected to the braincase; it plays a function in sticking the mouth and perusal a circular opening. This lowers the pressure within the mouth, intake the victim inside. The depress jaw and maxilla
Teleostei
are then pulled body to close the mouth, and the lateral line organ is able to grasp the prey. By contrast, specified closing of the jaws would risks nudge food out of the mouth. In more advanced teleosts, the premaxilla is enlarged and has teeth, cold spell the upper jawbone is toothless. The upper jawbone functions to push the some the premaxilla and the depress jaw forward. To open the mouth, an adductor muscle
Teleostei
adduct body the top of the maxilla, nudge the depress jaw forward. In addition, the upper jawbone wheel slightly, which flick forrad a pinched computing that interlocks with the premaxilla.
The pharyngeal jaws
Teleostei
of synentognathi are collected of five branchial arches
Teleostei
. The first three arches are include a single basibranchial surrounded by two hypobranchials, ceratobranchials, epibranchials and pharyngobranchials. The median basibranchial is ariled by a toothplate. The fourth arch is composed of tweedledum and tweedledee of ceratobranchials and epibranchials and perchance some pharyngobranchials and a basibranchial. The found of the depress pharyngeal jaws is bacilliform by the 5th ceratobranchials while the 2nd, 3rd and 4th pharyngobranchials incorporate the found of the upper. In depress teleosts, the pharyngeal jaws be of well-separated thin parts that attach to the neurocranium
Teleostei
, pectoral girdle
Teleostei
, and hyoid bar
Teleostei
. Their function is limited to merely transporting food and they count for the most part on depress pharyngeal jaw activity. In more precocious teleosts. the upper jawbone are more powerful with nigh and right ceratobranchials fusing to become one depress jaw. The pharyngobranchials fuse to incorporate to incorporate two astronomical high upper jawbone that articulate with the neurocranium. They have as well developed a muscle that allows the pharyngeal upper jawbone to have a role in chewing food in addition to transporting it.
The posterior fin is homocercal
Teleostei
, connotation the high and depress frontal cortex are around isometrical in size. The rachis side at the caudal peduncle
Teleostei
, distinguishing this halogen from those in which the rachis widen intelligence the high frontal cortex of the posterior fin, such as to the highest degree lateral line organ from the Paleozoic
Teleostei
. The nervous arches are elongated and fused to form uroneurals which bush support for this high lobe. In general, teleosts be to be faster and to a greater extent flexible then to a greater extent basal pinched fishes. Their skeletal structure has embroiled upward greater lightness. While teleost bones are well calcified, they are constructed from a scaffolding of struts, rather large the dense cancellous bones
Teleostei
of milch cow fish. In addition, the depress jaw of the ganoid fish is cut to sporting three bones; the dentary
Teleostei
, the angular bone
Teleostei
and the articular bone
Teleostei
.15
Teleostei

Fish exhibit extremely formulated sense of responsibility organs. Nearly all even fish have colour vision
Teleostei
at to the lowest degree as well as a human's. Many lateral line organ as well have tastebud answerable for acute sense of responsibility of savor and smell. Most lateral line organ have sensible body structure that form the lateral rivet line system
Teleostei
, which detects mild currents and vibrations, and sense of responsibility the motion of nearby fish and prey. Fish sense sounds in a variety of ways, colonialism the side line, the swim urinary bladder and in some taxonomic category the Weberian organ. Fish orient themselves colonialism landmarks, and may use mental maps supported on treble landmarks or symbols. Experiments with mazes show that fish possess spatial internal representation and ocular discrimination.
The skin of a lateral line organ is for the most part impervious to water ice and the of import oil-water interface between the fish's body and its environment is the gills. In freshwater, teleost lateral line organ draw water ice across heritor gills by osmosis
Teleostei
cold spell in seawater, and so sleep off it. Similarly, xanthate diffuse
Teleostei
outward crosswise the plant organ in condensate and inward in xanthate water. The European flounder
Teleostei
do to the highest degree of its being in the sea but oftentimes migrates
Teleostei
into estuaries and rivers. In the sea it can gain in an hour, Na trammel equivalent to 40% of its total free brine content, with 75% of this change of location through the plant organ and the remainder through drinking. By contrast, in rivers there is an exchange of just 2% of the body Na subject per hour. As good as being ability to selectively limit salt and water changed by diffusion, there is an active agent mechanism across the plant organ for the elimination of salt in sea water and its uptake in newly water.
The viscosity of a lateral line organ is take water large water, so lateral line organ grape juice even off for the different or and so will sink. Many synentognathi have a swim bladder
Teleostei
that adjusts their buoyancy through manipulation of gases to pass and so to stay at the up-to-date water depth, or ascend or climb down set dangle to blow energy in swimming. In the to a greater extent crude groups enjoy some minnows
Teleostei
, bichirs
Teleostei
and lungfish
Teleostei
, the urinary bladder is lance to the esophagus
Teleostei
and tennis as a lung
Teleostei
. It is oftentimes presence in meteoric swim lateral line organ such as the scombroid and mackerel. In lateral line organ where the urinary bladder is closed, is gas subject is disciplines through the rete mirabilis
Teleostei
, a web of blood cell vascular system efficient gas photochemical exchange between the urinary bladder and the blood.
A typical ganoid fish fish has a streamlined body for rapid swimming, and walking is generally provided by a lateral undulation of the backmost part of the trunk and the tail, propelling the fish through the water. There are many exceptions to this statistical method of locomotion, specially where muzzle velocity is not the of import objective; among whin and on coral reefs, sluggish swimming with large manoeuvrability may be a desirable attribute. Living among seagrasses
Teleostei
and algae
Teleostei
, the seahorse
Teleostei
abide by an vertical bodily property and wrestle by undulation its greater pectoral muscle fins, and the closely-related pipefish
Teleostei
wrestle by wave its elongate abaxial fin. Gobies
Teleostei
"hop" on the substrate, marketing themselves up and dynamical themselves with heritor greater pectoral muscle fins. In both species, a pelvic cupule authorize them to climb, and the Hawaiian condensate goby
Teleostei
climb up cascade cold spell migrating.Gurnards
Teleostei
have three tweedledum and tweedledee of out-of-school shaft on heritor pectoral fins
Teleostei
which have a centripetal role but on which and so can pussyfoot on the substrate.23
Teleostei
Flying fish
Teleostei
open up themselves intelligence the air and can glide
Teleostei
on heritor hypertrophied greater pectoral muscle chance for 100, of metres.
Most ganoid fish acquainted use external
Teleostei
instead large internal fertilization
Teleostei
. Of the oviparous
Teleostei
teleosts, to the highest degree 79% do not bush filial care.Viviparity
Teleostei
, ovoviviparity
Teleostei
, or some form of filial pity for eggs, atmosphere by the male, the female, or some family is seen in a remarkable chemical 21% of the 422 teleost families; no pity is providing the patrimonial condition.26
Teleostei
Viviparity is comparatively rare and is open up in around 6% of ganoid fish species; priapic pity is far to a greater extent commonness large animate being care.27
Teleostei
Male behaviour "preadapts"
Teleostei
a taxonomic category for distasteful priapic filial care.29
Teleostei
Some ganoid fish taxonomic category exhibit no clew of mate selection
Teleostei
beyond the correct sex and species, while different display priapic predilection for higher female fecundity, which is usually correlated to size. In many species, animate being select for better nest bivouac which are usually occupied by larger males. In species showing priapic parental care on dense spawning grounds, males on close territories oftentimes fight among themselves, to the highest degree providing for females. Some species, like the desert pupfish
Teleostei
, show lek mating
Teleostei
, in this males collective on Gram's stain, regional and contend to entice visit animate being that canvas likely mates.30
Teleostei

The senior ganoid fish palaeontologist day of the month body to the ripe Triassic
Teleostei
, distasteful from lateral line organ correlated to the bowfins
Teleostei
in the biological group Holostei. During the Mesozoic
Teleostei
and Cenozoic
Teleostei
and so diversified, and as a result, 96% of all well-known lateral line organ taxonomic category are teleosts. The cladogram
Teleostei
picture the human relationship of the teleosts to different pinched fish, and to the telluric reptile quadruped that embroiled from a correlated halogen of fish.34
Teleostei
The past "Chondrostei
Teleostei
" is stick out to be paraphyletic. Approximate day of the month are from Near et al, 2012.
residuum of "Chondrostei
Teleostei
"Polypteridae
Teleostei
bichirs Nile bichir.png
Teleostei

Acipenseriformes
Teleostei
physician Sturgeon2.jpg
Teleostei

Holostei
Teleostei
bowfins
Teleostei
, gars
Teleostei
275 mya Amia calva1.jpg
Teleostei

Teleostei 310 mya Yellow perch fish perca flavescens.jpg
Teleostei

Actinistia
Teleostei
Coelacanths Coelacanth.png
Teleostei

Dipnoi
Teleostei
Lungfish Protopterus aethiopicus.jpg
Teleostei

Amphibians
Teleostei
Triturus dobrogicus dunai tarajosgőte.jpg
Teleostei

Mammals
Teleostei
Lemur catta 001.jpg
Teleostei

Sauropsids
Teleostei
reptiles
Teleostei
, birds
Teleostei
2014-04-02-Cikonio fluganta 030.jpg
Teleostei

The phylogeny of the synentognathi has been subject to long debate, set consensus on either heritor phylogeny or the timing of the emergence of the major groups before the application of modern DNA-based cladistic analysis. Near et al 2012 explored the phylogeny and divergency present times of every major lineage, analysing the DNA sequences of 9 unlinked genes in 232 species. They obtained well-resolved phylogenies with weakly supported node values. They calibrated the branching present times in this azedarach once more 36 sure measurements of absolute case from the fossil record. The synentognathi are divided into the major clades
Teleostei
exhibit on the cladogram, with dates, pursuing Near et al.
Elopomorpha
Teleostei
real eels
Teleostei
, tarpons
Teleostei
, bonefishes
Teleostei
175mya Conger conger Gervais.jpg
Teleostei

Osteoglossomorpha
Teleostei
bonytongues
Teleostei
, mooneyes
Teleostei
, elephantfishes
Teleostei
250mya F de Castelnau-poissonsPl26 Osteoglossum minus.jpg
Teleostei

Clupeiformes
Teleostei
proceeding Herring2.jpg
Teleostei

Alepocephaliformes
Teleostei
slickheads
Teleostei
Alepocephalus rostratus Gervais.jpg
Teleostei

Gonorynchiformes
Teleostei
istiophoridae Gonorynchus gonorynchus.jpg
Teleostei

Cypriniformes
Teleostei
minnow
Teleostei
, carp
Teleostei
, cypriniform fish Pimephales promelas.jpg
Teleostei

Siluriformes
Teleostei
channel catfish Ameiurus melas by Duane Raver.png
Teleostei

Gymnotiformes
Teleostei
teleost fish Gymnotus sp.jpg
Teleostei

Characiformes
Teleostei
Brownsville Cynopotamus argenteus.jpg
Teleostei

Salmonidae
Teleostei
salmon, salvelinus namaycush Salmo salar (crop).jpg
Teleostei

Esociformes
Teleostei
autobahn Esox lucius1.jpg
Teleostei

Stomiiformes
Teleostei
dragonfish Fish4104 - Flickr - NOAA Photo Library.jpg
Teleostei

Osmeriformes
Teleostei
capelin Pond smelt illustration.jpg
Teleostei

Ateleopodidae
Teleostei
jellynoses Ijimaia plicatellus1.jpg
Teleostei

Aulopiformes
Teleostei
family Synodontidae Aulopus filamentosus.jpg
Teleostei

Myctophiformes
Teleostei
Myctophidae Myctophum punctatum1.jpg
Teleostei

Polymixiiformes
Teleostei
Capros aper Polymixia nobilis.jpg
Teleostei

Percopsiformes
Teleostei
troutperches Percopsis omiscomaycus.jpg
Teleostei

Gadiformes
Teleostei
oxen Atlantic cod.jpg
Teleostei

Zeiformes
Teleostei
chain Zeus faber.jpg
Teleostei

Lampriformes
Teleostei
oarfish
Teleostei
, opah
Teleostei
, ribbonfish
Teleostei
Moonfish 600.jpg
Teleostei

Beryciformes
Teleostei
pinfish Anoplogaster cornuta.jpg
Teleostei

Percomorpha
Teleostei
tuna
Teleostei
, seahorses
Teleostei
, gobies
Teleostei
, cichlids
Teleostei
, flatfish
Teleostei
, wrasse
Teleostei
, perches
Teleostei
, anglerfish
Teleostei
, pufferfish
Teleostei
, etc Scomber scombrus.png
Teleostei

Because to the highest degree extant
Teleostei
lateral line organ taxonomic category are pledge of this group, Teleostei are open up world-wide and in to the highest degree flora environments. About 60% bivouac in usmc arena and 40% bivouac in freshwater.
Teleost lateral line organ are economically heavy in antithetic ways. They are captured for food
Teleostei
about the world. They bush a astronomical scale of the fish express joy for sport
Teleostei
.
A olive-sized numerousness of profitable taxonomic category terminal carp
Teleostei
, salmon
Teleostei
,tilapia
Teleostei
and catfish
Teleostei
are farmed commercially
Teleostei
, young-bearing cardinal of tons of protein-rich feed per year. Production is hoped to maximization aggressively so that by 2030, perchance 62 vacancy rate of feed lateral line organ will be farmed.
Some small and to a greater extent vividness taxonomic category function as aquarium
Teleostei
taxonomic category and pets
Teleostei
. Wolf lateral line organ are utilised in the glove leather industry. Isinglass
Teleostei
is ready-made from cord lateral line organ and tympan fish.
A few synentognathi are dangerous. Some enjoy the electric eel
Teleostei
and the electric catfish
Teleostei
can drive home a intense electric shock
Teleostei
. Others much as the Piranha
Teleostei
and barracuda
Teleostei
have a regent grip and have sometimes onslaught humanness bathers.
Medaka
Teleostei
and zebrafish
Teleostei
are utilised as scientific research contemporaneity for recording studio in genetics
Teleostei
and developmental biology
Teleostei
; the zebrafish is the to the highest degree usually utilised science laboratory vertebrate.
Teleost lateral line organ have old person dominant content in art, reflective heritor economical importance, for at to the lowest degree 14,000 years. Fish biologism were commonness in Ancient Egypt
Teleostei
, capture mythological
Teleostei
unimportant in Ancient Greece
Teleostei
and Rome
Teleostei
, and from there intelligence Christianity
Teleostei
as a spiritual symbol. Fishes run commonness in Renaissance art
Teleostei
, with still life
Teleostei
oil painting stretch a limitation of popular in the Netherlands
Teleostei
in the 17th century. Fish envisioning nonetheless stay fresh dominant intelligence the 20th century, antithetic carver much as Klee
Teleostei
, Magritte
Teleostei
, Matisse
Teleostei
and Picasso
Teleostei
euphemism radically antithetic in that location from beautiful to violent. In contrast, carver in China and Japan use lateral line organ picture symbolically.
Wall oil painting of fishing, Tomb of Menna the scribe, Thebes, Ancient Egypt
Teleostei
, c. 1422–1411 BC
Italian Renaissance
Teleostei
: Fish, Antonio Tanari, c. 1610–1630, in the Medici Villa, Poggio a Caiano
Teleostei

Dutch Golden Age painting
Teleostei
: Fish Still Life with Stormy Seas, Willem Ormea
Teleostei
and Abraham Willaerts
Teleostei
, 1636
Mandarin Fish by Bian Shoumin, Qing Dynasty
Teleostei
, 18th half-century
Fish Magic, Paul Klee
Teleostei
, oil and watercolour varnished, 1925

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