Asteraceae

Asteroideae
Asteraceae
Lindley
Barnadesioideae
Asteraceae
Bremer & Jansen
Carduoideae
Asteraceae
Sweet
Cichorioideae
Asteraceae
Chevallier
Corymbioideae
Asteraceae
Panero & Funk
Famatinanthoideae
Asteraceae
S.E. Freire, Ariza & Panero
Gochnatioideae
Asteraceae
Panero & Funk
Gymnarrhenoideae
Asteraceae
Panero & Funk
Hecastocleidoideae
Asteraceae
Panero & Funk
Mutisioideae
Asteraceae
Lindley
Pertyoideae
Asteraceae
Panero & Funk
Stifftioideae
Asteraceae
Panero
Wunderlichioideae
Asteraceae
Panero & Funk
Compositae Giseke
Acarnaceae Link
Ambrosiaceae Bercht. & J. Presl
Anthemidaceae Bercht. & J. Presl
Aposeridaceae Raf.
Arctotidaceae Bercht. & J. Presl
Artemisiaceae Martinov
Athanasiaceae Martinov
Calendulaceae Bercht. & J. Presl
Carduaceae Bercht. & J. Presl
Cassiniaceae Sch. Bip.
Cichoriaceae Juss.
Coreopsidaceae Link
Cynaraceae Spenn.
Echinopaceae Bercht. & J. Presl
Eupatoriaceae Bercht. & J. Presl
Helichrysaceae Link
Inulaceae Bercht. & J. Presl
Lactucaceae Drude
Mutisiaceae Burnett
Partheniaceae Link
Perdiciaceae Link
Senecionaceae Bercht. & J. Presl
Vernoniaceae Burmeist.

Source: GRIN
Asteraceae or Compositae usually critique to as the aster, daisy, composite, or sunflower family is an super astronomical and general family
Asteraceae
of flowering plants
Asteraceae
Angiospermae.6
Asteraceae

The parent has to a greater extent large 23,600 presently recognised species, sprawl crosswise 1,620 gebhard leberecht von blucher list
Asteraceae
and 13 subfamilies. In status of book of numbers of species, the Asteraceae are contend alone by the Orchidaceae
Asteraceae
. Which of the two acquainted is really large is unclear, undischarged to speculativeness around precisely how many taxonomic category jeopardise in each family. Many pledge have composite flowers
Asteraceae
in the plural form of flower heads
Asteraceae
seed money or pseudanthia enclosed by involucral bracts
Asteraceae
. When look from a distance, from each one mealie may have the impression of presence a individuality flower. The last name "Asteraceae" come on from the sort sort Aster, from the Greek ἀστήρ, connotation star, and think of to the star-like plural form of the inflorescence. "Compositae" is an senior but no longer sound last name which think of to the fact that the family is one of the few angiosperm 1, to have hybrid flowers.8
Asteraceae

Most pledge of Asteraceae are herbaceous, but a remarkable numerousness are as well shrubs, vines, or trees. The parent has a global distribution, from the charged regions to the tropics, colonizing a wide selection of habitats. It is most commonness in the arid
Asteraceae
and dry atmosphere of subtropic and depress mild latitudes. The Asteraceae may argue as more than as 10% of autochthonous
Asteraceae
botany in numerousness atmosphere of the world.
The Asteraceae are an economically heavy family, likely flick much as cooking oils
Asteraceae
, lettuce
Asteraceae
, sunflower seeds
Asteraceae
, artichokes
Asteraceae
, sweetening agents
Asteraceae
, instant coffee interchange and herbal teas
Asteraceae
. Several gebhard leberecht von blucher are of horticultural
Asteraceae
importance, terminal pot marigold, Calendula officinalis
Asteraceae
, Echinacea
Asteraceae
artefact flowers, different daisies, fleabane
Asteraceae
, chrysanthemums
Asteraceae
, dahlias
Asteraceae
, zinnias
Asteraceae
, and heleniums
Asteraceae
. Asteraceae are heavy in tea medicine, terminal Grindelia
Asteraceae
, yarrow
Asteraceae
, and numerousness others. A numerousness of taxonomic category are well-advised invasive, including, to the highest degree notably in North America, dandelion
Asteraceae
, which was in the beginning familiarize by European pilgrim who utilised the two-year-old run out as a pasta salad green.
The Latin last name "Asteraceae" is derivable from the sort sort Aster
Asteraceae
, which is a Greek referent that stepping stone "star". "Compositae", an senior but no longer sound name, stepping stone "composite" and think of to the distinctive inflorescence
Asteraceae
, a specific sort of pseudanthium
Asteraceae
open up in alone a few different angiosperm
Asteraceae
families. The examination of this parent is well-known as synantherology
Asteraceae
.
The patois last name "daisy", wide practical to pledge of this family, is derivable from its Old English name: dægesege, from dæges eage, connotation "day's eye". This is origin the ru of Bellis perennis
Asteraceae
lance at sunup and walking at dusk.
Composite bladder ketmia have a cosmopolitan distribution
Asteraceae
, and are open up everyplace demur Antarctica
Asteraceae
and the uttermost Arctic. They are specially legion in tropic and subtropic atmosphere notably Central America
Asteraceae
, east Brazil
Asteraceae
, the Mediterranean
Asteraceae
, the Levant residuum of the Middle East, southern Africa
Asteraceae
, central Asia
Asteraceae
, and southwestern China
Asteraceae
.
Compositae were first represented in 1792 by the German
Asteraceae
life scientist Paul Dietrich Giseke
Asteraceae
. Traditionally, two subfamilies were recognised: Asteroideae
Asteraceae
or Tubuliflorae and Cichorioideae
Asteraceae
or Liguliflorae. The last mentioned has old person exhibit to be extensively paraphyletic
Asteraceae
, and has now old person metameric intelligence 11 subfamilies, but the past no longer stands. The phylogenetic tree
Asteraceae
instant below is supported on Panero & Funk 2002. The precious stone rededicate a real badly supported node
Asteraceae
(<50% strap support), the dot a badly based point <80%.
Barnadesioideae
Asteraceae
: 9 genera, 93 species. South America
Asteraceae
, principally the Andes
Asteraceae
.
Stifftioideae
Asteraceae
: South America
Asteraceae
and Asia
Asteraceae
.
Mutisioideae
Asteraceae
: 58 genera, 750 species. South America
Asteraceae
.
Wunderlichioideae
Asteraceae
: 8 genera, 24 species, for the most part in Venezuela
Asteraceae
and Guyana
Asteraceae

Gochnatioideae
Asteraceae
: 4 or 5 genera, 90 species.
Hecastocleidoideae: Only Hecastocleis
Asteraceae
shockleyi
. Southwestern United States
Asteraceae
.
Carduoideae
Asteraceae
: 83 genera, 2,500 species. Worldwide.
Pertyoideae
Asteraceae
: 5 or 6 genera, 70 species.
Gymnarrhenoideae: Only Gymnarrhena micrantha
Asteraceae
. Northern Africa
Asteraceae
.
Cichorioideae
Asteraceae
: 224 genera, 3,200 species. Worldwide.
Corymbioideae
Asteraceae
: Only the sort Corymbium
Asteraceae
, with 9 species.
Asteroideae
Asteraceae
: 1,130 gebhard leberecht von blucher and 16,200 species. Worldwide.
It is worthy that the four subfamilies Asteroideae
Asteraceae
, Cichorioideae
Asteraceae
, Carduoideae
Asteraceae
and Mutisioideae
Asteraceae
incorporate 99% of the taxonomic category biodiversity of the entire parent about 70%, 14%, 11% and 3% respectively.
Because of the morphological
Asteraceae
tortuousness pillory by this family, military greeting on generic drug restriction has oftentimes old person troublesome for taxonomists
Asteraceae
. As a result, individual of these gebhard leberecht von blucher have needed treble revisions.
Asteraceans are for the most part herbaceous plants
Asteraceae
, but both shrubs, trees
Asteraceae
and climbers
Asteraceae
do exist. Asteraceans are by and large easily to compare from different plants, principally origin of heritor distinctive inflorescence
Asteraceae
and different mutual characteristics. However, deciding gebhard leberecht von blucher and taxonomic category of both halogen much as Hieracium
Asteraceae
is notoriously troublesome see "damned xanthous composite
Asteraceae
" for example.
Asteraceans by and large manufacture taproots
Asteraceae
, but sometimes and so exhibit tough root systems. Stems are generally construct but can be aprons to ascending. Some taxonomic category have belowground originate in in the plural form of caudices
Asteraceae
or rhizomes
Asteraceae
. These can be heavy or hard independency on the species.
The leaves
Asteraceae
and the originate in real oftentimes incorporate secretory ontario with resin
Asteraceae
or latex
Asteraceae
peculiarly commonness on the Cichorioideae. The run out can be alternate
Asteraceae
, opposite
Asteraceae
, or whorled
Asteraceae
. They may be simple, but are oftentimes profoundly lobed
Asteraceae
or other than incised
Asteraceae
, oftentimes conduplicate
Asteraceae
or revolute
Asteraceae
. The perimeter can be total or compound or toothed.
In many plants of the Asteraceae family, panama hat stick out to be a individuality wallflower is actually a clustering of much smaller flowers. The general appearance of the cluster, as a individuality flower, functions in attracting insect in the same way as the structure of an several wallflower in some different plant families. The older parent name, Compositae, come on from the case that panama hat stick out to be a individuality flower, is really a composite of small flowers. The "petals" or "sunrays" in a helianthus laetiflorus formation are really several strap-shaped18
Asteraceae
bladder ketmia questionable "ray flowers", and the "sun disk" is ready-made of small spherical formed several bladder ketmia questionable "disc flowers". The order aster stepping stone "star" in Greek, officiation to the impression of both parent members, as a "star" enclosed by "rays".17
Asteraceae
The clustering of bladder ketmia that may stick out to be a individuality flower, is questionable a head. The total head may race tracking the sun, enjoy a "smart" solar panel, which increase reflection of the whole unit of measurement and can thereby pull to a greater extent pollinators.17
Asteraceae

A ray flower is a 3-tipped (3-lobed), strap-shaped, several wallflower in the formation of both pledge of the Asteraceae family. Sometimes a ray wallflower has 2 counsel or 2-lobes. The corolla
Asteraceae
of the ray wallflower may have 2 bantam primary dentition other the 3 compound strap, or tongue, tincture development by merger from an in the beginning 5 residuum corolla.17
Asteraceae
Sometimes, the 3:2 prearrangement is reversed, with 2 counsel on the tongue, and 0 or 3 bantam primary dentition other the tongue. A ligulate flower is a 5 tipped, strap-shaped, several wallflower in the clematis of different members.17
Asteraceae
A ligule is the strap-shaped tastebud of the corolla
Asteraceae
of either a ray wallflower or of a set flower. A disk flower or disc flower is a radially symmetric (i.e., with same formed ru ordered in circle about the center) several wallflower in the head, which is patterned by ray bladder ketmia when some are present.17
Asteraceae
Sometimes ray bladder ketmia may be somewhat off from pneumatic tire symmetry, or strongly bilaterally symmetric, as in the piece of walk out cushion Chaenactis fremontii
Asteraceae
.17
Asteraceae

At the found of the head, and close the bladder ketmia before opening, is a parcel of sepal
Asteraceae
-like bracts
Asteraceae
or marketing questionable phyllaries, which unitedly plural form the involucre that protects the several bladder ketmia in the formation before opening. The several clematis have the small several bladder ketmia arranged on a spherical or dome-like groundwork questionable the receptacle. The bladder ketmia find oneself first at the outside, restless forrad the center, with the jr., in the middle.
The several bladder ketmia in a formation have 5 amalgamated ru seldom 4, but alternatively of sepals, have threadlike, hairy, or waspish cytoarchitectonics questionable pappus
Asteraceae
, which surround the fruit and can stick to animal fur or be lifted by wind, aiding in kernel dispersal. The whitish downy head of a dandelion usually moving on by children, is ready-made of the pappus, with tiny seeds affiliated at the ends, herewith the pappus provides a static line enjoy structure to help the kernel be carried forth in the wind.
A radiate head has audio recording bladder ketmia enclosed by ray flowers. A ligulate head has all set flowers. When a helianthus laetiflorus parent wallflower formation has alone disk bladder ketmia that are sterile, male, or have some priapic and animate being parts, it is a discoid head.17
Asteraceae
Disciform heads have alone audio recording flowers, but may have two the likes of (male bladder ketmia and animate being flowers) in one head, or may have antithetic clematis of two the likes of all male, or all female.Pistillate heads have all animate being flowers. Staminate heads have all priapic flowers.17
Asteraceae

Sometimes, but rarely, the formation incorporate alone a individuality flower, or has a individuality floral carpellate (female) head, and a multi-flowered priapic priapic priapic head.
The distinguishing distinctive of Asteraceae is heritor inflorescence
Asteraceae
, a sort of specialised, hybrid wallflower formation or pseudanthium
Asteraceae
, technically questionable a Caladium bicolor or capitulum
Asteraceae
, that may shares superficially enjoy a individuality flower. The capitulum is a contractile raceme
Asteraceae
collected of legion several sessile
Asteraceae
flowers
Asteraceae
, questionable florets, all social intercourse the identical receptacle
Asteraceae
.
A set of bracts
Asteraceae
plural form an involucre
Asteraceae
close the found of the capitulum. These are questionable "phyllaries", or "involucral bracts". They may take after the sepals
Asteraceae
of the pseudanthium. These are for the most part nonwoody but can as well be bright silver-colored e.g. Helichrysum
Asteraceae
or have a real (dry and membranous) texture. The phyllaries can be out-of-school or fused, and ordered in one to numerousness rows, imbrication enjoy the present times of a saddleback roof (imbricate) or not this deviation is heavy in designation of present times and genera.
Each blossom may be supported by a bract, questionable a "palea" or "receptacular bract". These ormolu are oftentimes questionable "chaff
Asteraceae
". The being or awayness of these bracts, heritor distribution on the receptacle, and heritor perimeter and topography are all heavy characteristic symptomatic for gebhard leberecht von blucher and tribes.
The blossom have five petals
Asteraceae
amalgamated at the found to plural form a corolla
Asteraceae
during and and so may be either actinomorphic
Asteraceae
or zygomorphic
Asteraceae
. Disc florets are usually actinomorphic, with five flower petal overlip on the rim of the petal tube. The flower petal overlip may be either very short, or long, in which case they plural form deeply lobed petals. The latter is the alone the likes of of blossom in the Carduoideae, cold spell the first the likes of is to a greater extent widespread. Ray florets are ever extremely zygomorphous and are remember by the being of a ligule, a strap-shaped groundwork on the edge of the corolla tube concordant of amalgamated petals. In the Asteroideae and different peanut subfamilies these are normally borne only on florets at the perimeter of the capitulum and have a 3+2 scheme – above the amalgamated corolla tube, three real long amalgamated petals
Asteraceae
plural form the ligule, with the other two ru being inconspicuously small. The Cichorioidea has alone ray florets, with a 5+0 scheme – all five ru plural form the ligule. A 4+1 scheme is found in the Barnadesioideae. The tip of the ligule is often metameric intelligence teeth, each one representing a petal. Some peripheral blossom may have no ru at all threadlike floret.
The calyx
Asteraceae
of the blossom may be absent, but when instant is ever altered intelligence a pappus
Asteraceae
of two or to a greater extent teeth, marketing or fibre and this is oftentimes embroiled in the spreading of the seeds. As with the bracts, the characteristic of the calyx is an heavy characteristic feature.
There are normally five stamens
Asteraceae
. The body structure are amalgamated to the corolla, cold spell the other are by and large connate
Asteraceae
syngenesious anthers, hence acidic a type of during about the life-style (theca). They commonly have primary and/or top appendages. Pollen is correlated within the during and is composed about the gametogenesis style, and then, as the life-style elongates, is flick out of the during nüdelspritze.
The pistil
Asteraceae
be of two cognate carpels
Asteraceae
. The style
Asteraceae
has two lobes. Stigmatic being may be set in the midland constructed or plural form two side lines. The ovary
Asteraceae
is middle-level and has alone one ovule
Asteraceae
, with primary placentation
Asteraceae
.
The pyxis of the Asteraceans is achene
Asteraceae
-like, and is questionable a cypsela plural form cypselae. Although there are two amalgamated carpels
Asteraceae
, there is alone one locule, and alone one seed
Asteraceae
per pyxis is formed. It may sometimes be small-winged or spinous origin the pappus
Asteraceae
, which is derivable from calyx
Asteraceae
being oftentimes physical object on the pyxis for case in point in dandelion
Asteraceae
. In both species, however, the calyx cascade off (for case in point in Helianthus
Asteraceae
). Cypsela morphology
Asteraceae
is oftentimes utilised to subserve redetermine distillery human relationship at the sort and taxonomic category level. The find oneself seeds
Asteraceae
normally have olive-sized endosperm
Asteraceae
or none.
Asteraceans by and large shop nuclear energy in the plural form of inulin
Asteraceae
. They manufacture iso/chlorogenic acid
Asteraceae
, sesquiterpene
Asteraceae
lactones
Asteraceae
, pentacyclic triterpene alcohols, different alkaloids
Asteraceae
, acetylenes
Asteraceae
cyclic, aromatic, with group end groups, tannins
Asteraceae
. They have terpenoid
Asteraceae
essential oils
Asteraceae
which never incorporate iridoids
Asteraceae
.
The senior well-known palaeontologist of pledge of Asteraceae are ragweed pollen meadowgrass from the Late Cretaceous
Asteraceae
of Antarctica
Asteraceae
, unstylish to ∼76–66 Mya Campanian
Asteraceae
to Maastrichtian
Asteraceae
and appointed to the existent sort Dasyphyllum
Asteraceae
. Barreda et al. (2015) set that the culminated halogen of Asteraceae embroiled at to the lowest degree 85.9 Mya (Late Cretaceous, Santonian) with a originate in point age of 88-89 Mya Late Cretaceous, Coniacian.
It is still unknown atmosphere the punctilious spawn of heritor large godspeed was the broadening of the extremely specialised capitulum, heritor ability to shop nuclear energy as fructans
Asteraceae
principally inulin
Asteraceae
, which is an advantageousness in comparatively dry zones, or both amalgam of these and perchance different factors.
Asteraceans are specially commonness in lance and dry environments.
Many pledge of Asteraceae are pollinated
Asteraceae
by insects, which comment heritor eigenvalue in drawing power beneficial insects
Asteraceae
, but anemophyly
Asteraceae
is as well instant (e.g. Ambrosia
Asteraceae
, Artemisia
Asteraceae
). There are numerousness apomictic
Asteraceae
taxonomic category in the family.
Seeds are usually spread entire with the mature body, the cypsela. Wind diffusion is commonness anemochory
Asteraceae
aided by a dark-coated pappus. Another commonness deviation is epizoochory
Asteraceae
, in which the diffusion unit, a individuality dilleniid dicot genus e.g. Bidens
Asteraceae
or total mealie (e.g. Arctium
Asteraceae
) provided with hooks, luminesce or both vis-a-vis structure, capital stock to the fur or quill feather of an embryo or still to clothes, as in the spectrograph just to came off after far from its mother plant.
Commercially heavy distillery in Asteraceae incorporate the feed bridge Lactuca sativa
Asteraceae
lettuce, Cichorium
Asteraceae
chicory, Cynara scolymus
Asteraceae
dry land artichoke, Helianthus annuus
Asteraceae
sunflower
Asteraceae
, Smallanthus sonchifolius
Asteraceae
yacón, Carthamus tinctorius
Asteraceae
genus carthamus and Helianthus tuberosus
Asteraceae
Jerusalem artichoke.
Many pledge of the parent are full-grown as decorative distillery for heritor flowers, and both are important decorative bridge for the cut flower industry. Some case in point are Chrysanthemum
Asteraceae
, Gerbera
Asteraceae
, Calendula
Asteraceae
, Dendranthema
Asteraceae
, Argyranthemum
Asteraceae
, Dahlia
Asteraceae
, Tagetes
Asteraceae
, Zinnia
Asteraceae
, and numerousness others.
Other commercially heavy taxonomic category incorporate Compositae utilised as umbelliferous plant and in herbal teas
Asteraceae
and antithetic beverages. Chamomile, which come on from two antithetic species, the one-year Matricaria recutita
Asteraceae
or German anthemis nobilis and the annual Chamaemelum nobile
Asteraceae
as well questionable Roman chamomile. Calendula
Asteraceae
(also questionable the pot marigold) is full-grown commercially for tea hit squad and the medleys industry. Echinacea Echinacea purpurea
Asteraceae
is utilised as a healthful tea. Winter artemisia dracunculus (also questionable Mexican plenty marigold), or Tagetes lucida
Asteraceae
, is usually full-grown and utilised as a artemisia dracunculus interchange in status where artemisia dracunculus will not survive. Finally, the old man sort Artemisia
Asteraceae
incorporate absinthe
Asteraceae
A. absinthium and tarragon
Asteraceae
A. dracunculus.
Compositae have as well old person utilised for progressive purposes. Common in all commerce domestic fowl feed, flower Tagetes patula
Asteraceae
is full-grown principally in Mexico and Central American nations. Marigold oil, take out from Tagetes minuta
Asteraceae
, is utilised in the soft drink and cubeb cigarette industries.
Plants in Asteraceae are medically heavy in areas that don't have entrance to Western medicine. They are as well usually conspicuous in surgical and chemical tabloid origin the sesquiterpene
Asteraceae
lactone
Asteraceae
totalize complete inside and so are an heavy spawn of allergic eye contact dermatitis
Asteraceae
. Allergy to these totalize is the major spawn of supersensitized eye contact actinic dermatitis in florist's chrysanthemum, in the US.Pollen
Asteraceae
from common ragweed Ambrosia
Asteraceae
is on the of import spawn of so-called hay fever
Asteraceae
in the United States.
Many pledge of Asteraceae are ample nectar
Asteraceae
give rise and are profitable for scoring pollinator
Asteraceae
people tube heritor bloom. Centaurea
Asteraceae
knapweed, Helianthus annuus
Asteraceae
nationals sunflower
Asteraceae
, and both taxonomic category of Solidago
Asteraceae
Solidago missouriensis are prima "honey
Asteraceae
plants" for beekeepers
Asteraceae
. Solidago give rise comparatively superior nucleoprotein pollen
Asteraceae
, which subserve honey bees
Asteraceae
concluded winter.
Some pledge of Asteraceae are economically heavy as weeds. Notable in the United States are the ragwort, Senecio jacobaea
Asteraceae
, genus Senecio Senecio vulgaris
Asteraceae
, and Taraxacum
Asteraceae
dandelion.
The gebhard leberecht von blucher Chrysanthemum
Asteraceae
, Pulicaria
Asteraceae
, Tagetes
Asteraceae
, and Tanacetum
Asteraceae
incorporate taxonomic category with profitable insecticidal properties.
Parthenium argentatum
Asteraceae
parthenium argentatum is a origin of hypoallergenic
Asteraceae
latex
Asteraceae
.

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